|کد مقاله||کد نشریه||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||نسخه تمام متن|
|305324||513021||2017||13 صفحه PDF||ندارد||دانلود کنید|
• Soil moisture, runoff, soil erosion were monitored in vineyard field-scale plots.
• Temporal and soil management effects on soil hydrological properties were evaluated.
• Summer storms caused hortonian runoff and high soil losses just a month after tillage.
• Highest runoff rates were observed in late autumn and winter in tilled vineyard.
• High runoff was due to soil saturation in the wet seasons.
Soil management in vineyard inter-rows has a great influence on soil hydraulic conductivity and bulk density, and, consequently, on runoff and soil erosion processes at the field scale. The maintenance of bare soil in vineyard inter-rows with tillage, as well as the tractor traffic, are known to expose the soil to compaction, reduction of soil water holding capacity and increase of runoff and erosion. The use of grass cover is one of the most common and effective practices in order to reduce such threats. It is therefore important to relate rainfall characteristics, soil properties and response in terms of runoff and soil erosion, from yearly to seasonal and to single event temporal scales. The objective of this work is to quantify the temporal variability of the effects of two different kind of inter-row management on soil hydrological properties, runoff and erosion in vineyards. For this reason two vineyard field-scale plots in the Alto Monferrato vine-growing area (Piedmont, NW Italy) were monitored in two years. The inter-rows were managed with conventional tillage (CT) and grass cover (GC), respectively. Fifteen series of infiltration tests were carried out during a 2-year period of observation (October 2012 to November 2014). In order to take into account the effect of tractors traffic, the tests were done on the track, and outside the track. Furthermore, a dataset of 29 rainfall-runoff events covering a wide range of topsoil characteristics was collected in the two plots, along with soil water content and runoff discharge monitoring, and determination of sediment yield in case of erosive events. An optical disdrometer installed in the plots provided also 1-min rainfall intensity data. In summer, just one month after tillage, CT soil showed very low hydraulic conductivity, so storms were able to cause Hortonian runoff and soil losses up to 5.7 Mg ha−1. In autumn and winter very high saturation-excess runoff was observed in CT, that reached 83% of the precipitation. Runoff in the grass cover plot was mainly due to saturation of the topsoil, and the annual reduction of runoff in the GC plot was about 63%. Soil erosion up to 1.2 Mg ha−1 in a single event was observed in the GC vineyard in winter. In each year of observation, most of the erosion occurred during a single event, while the total annual erosion was up to 9 times higher in the CT treatment than in the GC.
Journal: Soil and Tillage Research - Volume 165, January 2017, Pages 46–58