|کد مقاله||کد نشریه||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||نسخه تمام متن|
|5427009||1508611||2018||17 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||دانلود کنید|
- We demonstrate adjoint methods for atmospheric remote sensing in a two-dimensional setting.
- Searchlight functions are used to handle the singularity of measurement response functions.
- Adjoint methods require two radiative transfer calculations to evaluate the measurement misfit function and its derivatives with respect to all unknown parameters.
- Synthetic retrieval studies show the scalability of adjoint methods to problems with thousands of measurements and unknown parameters.
- Adjoint methods and the searchlight function technique are generalizable to 3D remote sensing.
In previous work, we derived the adjoint method as a computationally efficient path to three-dimensional (3D) retrievals of clouds and aerosols. In this paper we will demonstrate the use of adjoint methods for retrieving two-dimensional (2D) fields of cloud extinction. The demonstration uses a new 2D radiative transfer solver (FSDOM). This radiation code was augmented with adjoint methods to allow efficient derivative calculations needed to retrieve cloud and surface properties from multi-angle reflectance measurements. The code was then used in three synthetic retrieval studies.Our retrieval algorithm adjusts the cloud extinction field and surface albedo to minimize the measurement misfit function with a gradient-based, quasi-Newton approach. At each step we compute the value of the misfit function and its gradient with two calls to the solver FSDOM. First we solve the forward radiative transfer equation to compute the residual misfit with measurements, and second we solve the adjoint radiative transfer equation to compute the gradient of the misfit function with respect to all unknowns.The synthetic retrieval studies verify that adjoint methods are scalable to retrieval problems with many measurements and unknowns. We can retrieve the vertically-integrated optical depth of moderately thick clouds as a function of the horizontal coordinate. It is also possible to retrieve the vertical profile of clouds that are separated by clear regions. The vertical profile retrievals improve for smaller cloud fractions. This leads to the conclusion that cloud edges actually increase the amount of information that is available for retrieving the vertical profile of clouds. However, to exploit this information one must retrieve the horizontally heterogeneous cloud properties with a 2D (or 3D) model.This prototype shows that adjoint methods can efficiently compute the gradient of the misfit function. This work paves the way for the application of similar methods to 3D remote sensing problems.
Journal: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer - Volume 204, January 2018, Pages 215-231