کد مقاله کد نشریه سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی نسخه تمام متن
4968399 1365210 2017 13 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید دانلود کنید
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله
A study of pedestrian group behaviors in crowd evacuation based on an extended floor field cellular automaton model
موضوعات مرتبط
مهندسی و علوم پایه مهندسی کامپیوتر نرم افزارهای علوم کامپیوتر
پیش نمایش صفحه اول مقاله
A study of pedestrian group behaviors in crowd evacuation based on an extended floor field cellular automaton model
چکیده انگلیسی
In the study of pedestrian movements, a consideration of group behaviors is important because of their potential impacts on pedestrian flow dynamics. In this paper, we investigate the group behaviors during emergency evacuation, which is a critical case for emergency crowd management but has not been fully explored and understood. It has been well recognized that in evacuation situations, some people within a crowd, especially those who are with families and friends, often move in small groups and act in particular patterns distinct from individuals. As a result, the crowd is a mixture of individuals and groups rather than a pure collection of individuals. To capture and evaluate the influence of group behaviors on crowd evacuation, we propose an extended floor field cellular automaton (CA) model that takes into account such phenomena. Our model is formulated by leveraging the leader-follower behavior rule that is evident in pedestrian group behaviors. To calibrate and validate the proposed model, a few field experiments of crowd evacuation were conducted in a university building. Through a representative case study, it is demonstrated that the proposed extended floor field CA model can replicate the well-known phenomena in crowd evacuation such as collective arch-like clogging at the exit as well as other commonly observed group behaviors in evacuation. Moreover, it is found that the total crowd evacuation time significantly increases with the presence of pedestrian groups in the crowd. The results also show that such negative effects of group behaviors in crowd evacuation intensify when the density of the crowd is higher. Subsequently, sensitivity analyses are performed to further explore how pedestrian group behaviors are influenced by model parameters that reflect the pedestrian flow dynamics in evacuation scenarios. With its capability of realistically replicating the field pedestrian evacuation, the proposed model can serve as a valuable tool for predicting crowd evacuation time and designing guidelines for pedestrian evacuation in emergency situations, in particular when group behaviors are salient.
ناشر
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect (ساینس دایرکت)
Journal: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies - Volume 81, August 2017, Pages 317-329
نویسندگان
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