|کد مقاله||کد نشریه||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||نسخه تمام متن|
|5119503||1378218||2017||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||دانلود کنید|
The Colorado floods of September 2013 caused severe damage and fatalities, and resulted from prolonged heavy rainfall unusual for that time of year - both in its record-breaking amounts and associated weather systems. We investigate the possible role of anthropogenic climate change in this extreme event. The unusual hydrometeorology of the event, however, challenges standard frameworks for attributing extreme events to anthropogenic climate change, because they typically struggle to simulate and connect the large-scale meteorology associated with local weather processes. Therefore we instead employ a part dynamical modelling- part observational- based event attribution approach, which simulates regional Colorado rainfall conditional on boundary conditions prescribed from the observed synoptic-scale meteorology in September 2013 - and assumes these conditions would have been similar in the absence of anthropogenic forcing. Using this 'conditional event attribution' approach we find that our regional climate model simulations indicate that anthropogenic drivers increased the magnitude of heavy northeast Colorado rainfall for the wet week in September 2013 by 30%, with the occurrence probability of a week at least that wet increasing by at least a factor of 1.3. By comparing the convective and large-scale components of rainfall, we find that this increase resulted in part from the additional moisture-carrying capacity of a warmer atmosphere - allowing more intense local convective rainfall that induced a dynamical positive feedback in the existing larger scale moisture flow - and also in part from additional moisture transport associated with larger scale circulation change. Our approach precludes assessment of changes in the frequency of the observed synoptic meteorological conditions themselves, and thus does not assess the effect of anthropogenic climate drivers on the statistics of heavy Colorado rainfall events. However, tailoring analysis tools to diagnose particular aspects of localized extreme weather events, conditional on the observed large-scale meteorology, can prove useful for diagnosing the physical effects of anthropogenic climate change on severe weather events - especially given large uncertainties in assessments of anthropogenic driven changes in atmospheric circulation.
Journal: Weather and Climate Extremes - Volume 17, September 2017, Pages 1-6open access