|کد مقاله||کد نشریه||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||نسخه تمام متن|
|1192325||1492315||2011||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||دانلود رایگان|
We first summarize the early work by Fenn and colleagues on vapor ionization by an electrospray cloud (subsequently dubbed secondary electrospray ionization, or SESI), followed by analysis via an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer (API-MS). It was in part reported in Ph.D. theses and presented to ASMS conferences, but remains largely unpublished. After spending 20 years in limbo, various aspects of their method have begun to be used, leading recently to outstanding limits of detection of ambient volatiles (parts per quadrillion; ppq). There is still much room for improvement of the method, as the ionization probability (defined as the concentration ratio ns/nv between ionized vapor and neutral vapor) is p ∼ 10−3–10−4. This result follows from recent approximate measurements, as well as from a newly derived expression for the equilibrium value pe under space charge dominated conditions typical of an ES cloud (probably also of a corona discharge): pe = kɛo/(Zsq). This simple expression is derived from a balance between space charge dilution (dns/dt = −Zsnsniq/ɛo) and the rate of ionization of neutral vapor (dns/dt = knvni). It is independent of the concentration ni of the charging drops (or ions), but depends on the electrical mobility Zs of the ionized vapor and the net charge q on the charging species (ions or drops). ɛo is the electrical permittivity of vacuum. Still unresolved is the important mechanistic issue of whether the charge-exchange rate coefficient k corresponds to vapor collisions with ES drops (kd), or rather with individual ions formed after complete drop evaporation (kp, based on the ion-induced-dipole interaction model). Coincidentally, an upper limit obtained for kd is comparable to kp. The ionization efficiency of SESI is compared to that of radioactive and corona sources. Appendices include information on the various rate coefficients fixing pe. They extend the ion-induced-dipole interaction model to account for the relatively large size of most vapor molecules of interest. Size effects on kp are found to be modest, in contrast with the strong size dependence of the mobility of large ions.
The development of John Fenn's 1986 proposal to use an electrospray cloud to ionize atmospheric vapors for mass spectrometric analysis is reviewed.Figure optionsDownload high-quality image (128 K)Download as PowerPoint slideResearch highlights
► Vapors ionize readily by contact with an electrospray cloud (SESI).
► The approach is particularly useful in conjunction to API-MS.
► Both techniques have been strongly influenced by Fenn's work.
► The equilibrium ionization probability in the space charge limit is obtained.
Journal: International Journal of Mass Spectrometry - Volume 300, Issues 2–3, 1 March 2011, Pages 182–193