کد مقاله کد نشریه سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی نسخه تمام متن
4386019 1304554 2011 10 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید دانلود رایگان
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله ISI
Dampened behavioral and physiological responses mediate birds' association with humans
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موضوعات مرتبط
علوم زیستی و بیوفناوری علوم کشاورزی و بیولوژیک بوم شناسی، تکامل، رفتار و سامانه شناسی
پیش نمایش صفحه اول مقاله
Dampened behavioral and physiological responses mediate birds' association with humans
چکیده انگلیسی
The study of the mechanisms involved in phenotypic adaptations or plasticity to environmental stressors may serve to evaluate contemporary ecological and evolutionary dynamics in threatened or growing wildlife populations. By addressing human disturbance as a main stressor agent, we investigated antipredator response (flushing distance), social behavior (degree of gregarism), health (fecal pathogens), and endocrine status (fecal corticosterone levels) as potential mechanisms that permit birds to cope with anthropogenic impact in tourist areas. Our study models were species that are neither urbanized nor invasive, and that are typical of the high mountains of the Palearctic: the Alpine and the Red-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax graculus and P. pyrrhocorax), and the surrounding alpine bird community. Both chough species showed habituation, reduced flushing distances, fewer parasites and lower corticosterone levels in tourist than in non-tourist sites, and a significant variation in gregarious behavior. Behavioral and physiological adjustments permitted these corvids to optimize resource exploitation depending on habitat quality and in conditions of continuous disturbance. Human-induced changes in chough social behavior had no effect on local avian species richness, a surrogate measure for community diversity. Irrespectively of chough aggregations, bird diversity decreased significantly in recreational areas, thus not all community members tolerated human impact as choughs did. Our findings suggest that species that manage to coexist with humans primarily adjust traits that influence ecological interactions (social, foraging or antipredatory responses) and that vary rapidly (learned behaviors and physiological mechanisms that promote homeostasis).
ناشر
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect (ساینس دایرکت)
Journal: Biological Conservation - Volume 144, Issue 5, May 2011, Pages 1702-1711
نویسندگان
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