|کد مقاله||کد نشریه||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||نسخه تمام متن|
|95373||160428||2015||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||دانلود رایگان|
• Parallel study of four ink solvent ageing parameters.
• Evaluation of their reproducibility over time and not only at time t = 0.
• Investigation of the impact of writing pressure and two storage conditions on the ageing.
• First report of two relative peak area parameters using solvent ratios and an alternative R%*.
• Previously reported solvent loss ratio (R%) proved to be the least reproducible.
For more than a decade scientists tried to develop methods capable of dating ink by monitoring the loss of phenoxyethanol (PE) over time. While many methods were proposed in the literature, few were really used to solve practical cases and they still raise much concern within the scientific community. In fact, due to the complexity of ink drying processes it is particularly difficult to find a reliable ageing parameter to reproducibly follow ink ageing. Moreover, systematic experiments are required in order to evaluate how different factors actually influence the results over time. Therefore, this work aimed at evaluating the capacity of four different ageing parameters to reliably follow ink ageing over time: (1) the quantity of solvent PE in an ink line, (2) the relative peak area (RPA) normalising the PE results using stable volatile compounds present in the ink formulation, (3) the solvent loss ratio (R%) calculated from PE results obtained by the analyses of naturally and artificially aged samples, (4) a modified solvent loss ratio version (R%*) calculated from RPA results. After the determination of the limits of reliable measurements of the analytical method, the repeatability of the different ageing parameters was evaluated over time, as well as the influence of ink composition, writing pressure and storage conditions on the results. Surprisingly, our results showed that R% was not the most reliable parameter, as it showed the highest standard deviation. Discussion of the results in an ink dating perspective suggests that other proposed parameters, such as RPA values, may be more adequate to follow ink ageing over time.
Journal: Forensic Science International - Volume 252, July 2015, Pages 93–106