کد مقاله کد نشریه سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی نسخه تمام متن
2570962 1561181 2007 9 صفحه PDF دانلود رایگان
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله ISI
Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX
موضوعات مرتبط
علوم زیستی و بیوفناوری علوم محیط زیست بهداشت، سم شناسی و جهش زایی
پیش نمایش صفحه اول مقاله
Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX
چکیده انگلیسی

To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m3 of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood–brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure.

ناشر
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect (ساینس دایرکت)
Journal: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology - Volume 219, Issues 2–3, March 2007, Pages 142–150
نویسندگان
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