|کد مقاله||کد نشریه||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||نسخه تمام متن|
|352626||618604||2015||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||دانلود رایگان|
• We find that cost, from the expectancy-value model, has recently reemerged in the literature.
• Student focus groups confirm that cost is salient when considering their motivation.
• We redefine cost to be consistent with our theoretical review and qualitative inquiry.
• Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support our theoretical cost structure.
• Our cost dimensions are associated with other motivation constructs and student performance.
Although the Expectancy-Value Model offers one of the most influential models for understanding motivation, one component of this model, cost, has been largely ignored in empirical research. Fortunately, recent research is emerging on cost, but no clear consensus has emerged for operationalizing and measuring it. To address this shortcoming, we outline a comprehensive scale development process that builds and extends on prior work. We conducted a literature review of theory and existing measurement, a qualitative study with students, a content alignment with experts, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and a correlational study. In the literature and across our studies, we found that cost was salient to students, separate from expectancy and value components, contained multiple dimensions, and related to student outcomes. This work led to proposing a new, 19 item cost scale with four dimensions: task effort cost, outside effort cost, loss of valued alternatives cost, and emotional cost. In addition, to extend existing cost measures, careful attention was taken to operationalize the cost dimensions such that the scale could be easily used with a wide variety of students in various contexts. Directions for future research and the implications for the study of motivation are discussed.
Journal: Contemporary Educational Psychology - Volume 41, April 2015, Pages 232–244