|کد مقاله||کد نشریه||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||نسخه تمام متن|
|4478229||1622904||2016||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||دانلود رایگان|
• Significant logarithmic correlation between N load and runoff depth was identified.
• Nitrite nitrogen was proven to be the main form of inorganic nitrogen loss.
• N losses were influenced by runoff, soil erodibility and agricultural practices.
• Straw mulching with organic matter input is an effective practice to reduce N loss.
The susceptibility of purple soil and intensive tillage render the land prone to erosion under heavy precipitations in a sloping cropland in southwestern China. This study aimed to improve the evaluation of the potential benefits of surface protection tillage and organic matter addition to decreasing nutrient losses. A field plot experiment under natural rainfall conditions was conducted, which employed four management practices: conventional downslope tillage system as control (CK), contour tillage (CT) with organic matter addition (CT + OM), CT with wheat straw mulching (CT + SM), and CT combining straw mulching and organic matter addition (CT + OM + SM). Runoff depth, nutrient loads, and soil erodibility were used to estimate the effects of straw mulching and organic matter addition. Results indicated that the runoff depth under CK was largest during the experimental period, with an average of 16.91 mm, and runoff coefficient average was 32%. Compared with CK, the runoff depth under CT + OM, CT + SM, and CT + OM + SM were reduced by 19%, 34%, and 50%, respectively. A significant difference in soil erodibility indicator among the four treatments was indicated (p < 0.05); CK achieved the highest value, whereas CT + OM + SM obtained the least value. In addition, the contour cultivation (i.e., CT approaches) were more sustainable than the downslope tillage system (i.e., CK). Soil erodibility under CK was 9.83 kg ha−1 mm−1. Meanwhile, soil erodibility under CT + OM, CT + SM, and CT + OM + SM were 8.49, 6.99, and 6.87 kg ha−1 mm−1, respectively. These values were 14%, 29%, and 30% lower than that of CK, respectively. CK was more susceptible to accelerated erosion compared with the plots with a surface cover or organic addition. This greater erodibility resulted in higher runoff, sediment yield, and associated nutrient loss for CK. The runoff-associated nitrogen losses were mainly controlled by the runoff rate and soil erodibility (p < 0.05). Variations in NO3−–N and NH4+–N concentration in runoff water were markedly affected by rainfall events and agricultural practice. A significant logarithmic correlation between NO3−–N load and runoff depth was identified. NO3−–N was proven to be the main form of inorganic nitrogen loss; therefore, fertilizer application of NO3−–N should be reduced in the purple soil region. Soil erodibility significantly influenced the available N losses (p < 0.01), which was best described by a positive logarithmic correlation. Soil nutrient concentration also played an important role in nitrogen loss. However, further research is needed to understand the dynamic interactions between soil erodibility as well as soil and nutrient losses. Results indicated that surface protection by CT + OM + SM is one of the good management practices to reduce soil loss by water erosion in regions with intense agricultural activity.
Journal: Agricultural Water Management - Volume 176, October 2016, Pages 1–8