|کد مقاله||کد نشریه||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||نسخه تمام متن|
|6274194||1614820||2014||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||دانلود رایگان|
- Glutamate is released from trigeminal SGCs through EAATs.
- Elevated glutamate in TG excites ganglion neurons through NMDA receptors.
- Blocking glutamate uptake in the TG increases neuronal discharge.
- Mechanical sensitization of muscle nociceptors is induced by elevated glutamate in the TG.
- Mechanical sensitization is due to a peripheral mechanism.
In the trigeminal ganglion (TG), satellite glial cells (SGCs) form a functional unit with neurons. It has been proposed that SGCs participate in regulating extracellular glutamate levels and that dysfunction of this SGC capacity can impact nociceptive transmission in craniofacial pain conditions. This study investigated whether SGCs release glutamate and whether elevation of TG glutamate concentration alters response properties of trigeminal afferent fibers. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess glutamate content and the expression of excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT)1 and EAAT2 in TG sections. SGCs contained glutamate and expressed EAAT1 and EAAT2. Potassium chloride (10Â mM) was used to evoke glutamate release from cultured rat SGCs treated with the EAAT1/2 inhibitor (3S)-3-[[3-[[4-(trifluoromethyl)ben zoyl]amino]phenyl]methoxy]-l-aspartic acid (TFB-TBOA) or control. Treatment with TFB-TBOA (1 and 10Â Î¼M) significantly reduced the glutamate concentration from 10.6Â Â±Â 1.1 to 5.8Â Â±Â 1.4Â Î¼M and 3.0Â Â±Â 0.8Â Î¼M, respectively (pÂ <Â 0.05). Electrophysiology experiments were conducted in anaesthetized rats to determine the effect of intraganglionic injections of glutamate on the response properties of ganglion neurons that innervated either the temporalis or masseter muscle. Intraganglionic injection of glutamate (500Â mM, 3Â Î¼l) evoked afferent discharge and significantly reduced muscle afferent mechanical threshold. Glutamate-evoked discharge was attenuated byÂ the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV) and increased by TFB-TBOA, whereas mechanical sensitization was only sensitive to APV. Antidromic invasion of muscle afferent fibers by electrical stimulation of the caudal brainstem (10Â Hz) or local anesthesia of the brainstem with lidocaine did not alter glutamate-induced mechanical sensitization. These findings provide a novel mechanism whereby dysfunctional trigeminal SGCs could contribute to cranial muscle tenderness in craniofacial pain conditions such as migraine headache.
Journal: Neuroscience - Volume 256, 3 January 2014, Pages 23-35