کد مقاله کد نشریه سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی نسخه تمام متن
6335840 1620329 2016 18 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید دانلود رایگان
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله ISI
Transition metals in coarse, fine, very fine and ultra-fine particles from an interstate highway transect near Detroit
ترجمه فارسی عنوان
فلزات انتقال در ذرات درشت، خوب، بسیار خوب و ذرات فوق العاده از یک ترانسکت بزرگراه بین ایالت در نزدیکی دیترویت
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کلمات کلیدی
آئروسل ها، بزرگراه، پروفایل های اندازه، ترانسکت های جانبی فلزات فوق العاده خوب،
موضوعات مرتبط
مهندسی و علوم پایه علوم زمین و سیارات علم هواشناسی
چکیده انگلیسی


- I-96 freeway PM2.5 mass emission rate per 5000 v/hr, 2.0 ± 0.7 μg/m3, measured.
- I-96 freeway PM2.5 mass emission rate per 5000 v/hr, 1.6 ± 0.5 μg/m3, modeled.
- Using European PM2.5 emission rates at the I-96 site, 3.1 ± 1 μg/m3, modeled.
- Using California 1973 PM2.5 emission rates at I-96, 16 ± 3 μg/m3, modeled.
- Very fine and ultra-fine transition metals were regional, not from the I-96 site.

As one component of a study investigating the impact of vehicle emissions on near-road air quality, human exposures, and potential health effects, particles were measured from September 21 to October 30, 2010 on both sides of a major roadway (Interstate-96) in Detroit. Traffic moved freely on this 12 lane freeway with a mean velocity of 69 mi/hr. with little braking and acceleration. The UC Davis DELTA Group rotating drum (DRUM) impactors were used to collect particles in 8 size ranges at sites nominally 100 m south, 10 m north, 100 m north, and 300 m north of the highway. Ultra-fine particles were continuously collected at the 10 m north and 100 m north sites. Samples were analyzed every 3 h for mass (soft beta ray transmission), 42 elements (synchrotron-induced x-ray fluorescence) and optical attenuation (350-800 nm spectroscopy). A three day period of steady southerly winds along the array allowed direct measurement of freeway emission rates for coarse (10 > Dp > 1.0 μm), PM2.5, very fine (0.26 > Dp > 0.09 μm), and ultra-fine (Dp < 0.09 μm) particles. The PM2.5 mass concentrations were modeled using literature emission rates during the south to north wind periods, and averaged 1.6 ± 0.5 μg/m3, versus the measured value of 2.0 ± 0.7 μg/m3. Using European freeway emission rates from 2010, and modeling them at the I-96 site, we would predict roughly 3.1 μg/m3 of PM2.5 particles, corrected from the 4.9 PM10 value by their measured road dust contributions. Using California car and truck emission rates of 1973, this value would have been about 16 μg/m3, corrected down from the 19 μg/m3 PM5.0 using measured roadway dust contributions. This would have included 2.7 μg/m3 of lead, versus the 0.0033 μg/m3 measured. Very fine particles were distributed across the array with a relatively weak falloff versus distance. For the ultra-fine particles, emissions of soot and metals seen in vehicular braking studies correlated with traffic at the 10 m site, but only the soot was statistically significant at the 100 m north site. Otherwise, the 10 m north and 100 m north sites were essentially identical in mean concentration and highly correlated in time for most of the 5 week study. This result supports earlier publications showing the ability of very fine and ultra-fine particles to transport to sites well removed from the freeway sources. The concentrations of very fine and ultra-fine metals from brake wear and zinc in motor oil observed in Detroit have the potential of being a significant component in statistically established PM2.5 mortality rates.

ناشر
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect (ساینس دایرکت)
Journal: Atmospheric Environment - Volume 145, November 2016, Pages 158-175
نویسندگان
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