|کد مقاله||کد نشریه||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||نسخه تمام متن|
|95328||160427||2015||25 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||دانلود رایگان|
• Hundreds to thousands of very small particles are found on carpet fiber surfaces.
• These particles were recovered and characterized by SEM/EDS.
• Binning of particles into Target Particle Types showed characteristic profiles.
• Within and between-carpet variability was explored.
• Very small particle profiles showed strong potential utility to support source attribution.
Very small particles (VSP) are ubiquitous in our environment and are virtually ignored by forensic science. These particles range in size from an order of magnitude smaller than conventional trace evidence, down to the molecular level. Combinations of VSP provide an extraordinary, largely untapped resource for forensic associations and source attribution. This paper describes an initial effort to exploit VSP for one specific application.An approach was developed and tested for the SEM/EDS analysis of VSP recovered from the surfaces of carpet fibers – one of the most common types of trace evidence examined in crime laboratories. Our goal was to exploit existing computer-assisted SEM/EDS methods to test whether VSP profiles could be useful to associate shed fibers with a source carpet.Particles were harvested by washing and filtration onto polycarbonate filters. An SEM/EDS analysis protocol currently employed for environmental particle analyses was used, resulting in individual particle characterization based on fitting to reference spectra of 28 elements. Target Particle Types were defined based on the most abundant elemental profiles and used to bin the results for each specimen, resulting in a Target Particle Type profile.Within-carpet variability was assessed using Target Particle Type profiles from three different areas on each of nine carpets. Area profiles, defined from sets of ten fibers, were compared to profiles from individual fibers. Between-item variation was explored using a survey of an additional 12 carpets.Hundreds to thousands of VSP were found to routinely occur on individual carpet fibers. Their quantity and character was sufficient to associate fibers with their area of origin. Within-carpet variations showed roughly even distributions for most TPTs and between-carpet variations showed wide ranges in types and quantities of VSP.Environmentally acquired VSP showed clear potential to provide quantitative means to link carpet fibers with their area of origin. This finding is noteworthy, since such particles are acquired post-manufacture and are independent of characteristics determined by manufacture. More generally, VSP are ubiquitous, present on or in virtually any item, and there is the potential for linkages among items of any type based on adhering VSP. By way of example, the present work provides impetus for a fundamental change in the way that forensic trace evidence is conceptualized. Further fundamental research is indicated to better understand the underlying variability, usefulness and limitations of this approach.
Journal: Forensic Science International - Volume 254, September 2015, Pages 26–50