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• Sparteine exhibits anticonvulsant effects in different models of status epilepticus.
• Sparteine exhibits anticonvulsant effects in acute seizure activity.
• Ach M2/M4 receptors are possible mediators of sparteine's anticonvulsant effect.
• The CNS and systemic effects of sparteine may favor its anticonvulsant effect.
Sparteine is a quinolizidine alkaloid extracted from Lupinus that has numerous pharmacological properties both in humans and animal models. In the central nervous system, sparteine reduces locomotor activity, has light analgesic effects, also has no effects on short-term memory or spatial learning and does not induce changes in behavior or electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. However, the anticonvulsant profile of sparteine is not fully characterized in experimental animals and there are no data in humans. Therefore, the present review focuses on the experimental evidence supporting the anticonvulsant action of sparteine in models of acute seizures and status epilepticus (SE), as well as its possible mechanisms of action. The evidence that supports the anticonvulsant effect of (−)-Sparteine sulfate includes the inhibition of seizures induced by maximal electro-stimulation, a delay in the onset of convulsive behavior and the prolongation of survival time in mice treated with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Additionally, sparteine delays the onset of convulsive behavior and decreases the severity and mortality of rats treated with PTZ and pilocarpine. Sparteine decreases amplitude and frequency or blocks the epileptiform activity induced by PTZ, pilocarpine and kainic acid. Sparteine may decrease hyperexcitability through the activation of the M2 and M4 subtypes of mAChRs, which is a probable mechanism of action that together with its systemic effects may favor its anticonvulsant effects against seizures and SE.
Journal: Seizure - Volume 39, July 2016, Pages 49–55