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• This mixed methods study tested self-determination theory of motivation in hybrid programs.
• Online students reported significantly lower levels of relatedness than those on campus.
• Qual themes: peer relatedness, technology influence, instructor impact, and program structure
• In vivo quotations were used to create a self-efficacy for relatedness development scale.
• Students felt more capable of developing relatedness with peers in their same attendance mode.
The purpose of this multiphase mixed methods study was to apply Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory in an investigation of the relationships among students' need satisfaction, motivation, and achievement in synchronous hybrid learning environments (i.e., simultaneously teaching on-campus and online students using webconferencing). The results from Survey 1 indicated that online students reported significantly lower levels of relatedness than their on-campus counterparts. Follow-up interviews were conducted with purposefully chosen students and faculty members. The findings suggested that four themes impact synchronous hybrid learning: peer relatedness, technology influence, instructor impact, and program structure. In vivo quotations were used to develop a scale to assess participants' self-efficacy of relatedness development. Survey 2 data indicated that the new scale had good psychometric quality and that students reported significantly greater levels of self-efficacy for relatedness development with classmates in their same attendance mode than with peers in the opposite format.
Journal: The Internet and Higher Education - Volume 28, January 2016, Pages 85–95