|کد مقاله||کد نشریه||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||نسخه تمام متن|
|88055||159280||2011||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||دانلود رایگان|
In boreal forests, historical variations in the area disturbed by natural disturbances or harvesting have rarely been compared. We measured temporal and spatial variations in areas affected by severe fires and clearcutting throughout the 20th century in a 57, 332 km2 section of the eastern Canadian boreal forest. We examined the effects of these disturbances on spatio-temporal variations in the abundance of forests >60 years. Natural variability for the abundance of forests >60 years was estimated from simulations of natural disturbance regimes. We also measured compositional and structural differences between three categories of stands originating from relatively recent disturbances (∼50 years; clearcutting, fires, and clearcutting followed by fires), and one category of stands that were undisturbed for at least 200 years. At the regional level, we observed that forests >60 years gradually became scarcer throughout the 20th century due to a gradual expansion of harvested areas, an effect most pronounced in the southern part of the region, where mature and old forest abundance was clearly outside the range of natural variability at the end of the studied period. At the stand level, forest composition and structure differed between stand-origin categories: clearcutting-origin stands contained more balsam fir (Abies balsamea), fire-origin stands more black spruce (Picea mariana), and fire/clearcutting-origin stands more hardwoods (Betula papyrifera and Populus tremuloides). Overall, we estimate that strict forest management targets based on natural disturbance regimes will be difficult to achieve in eastern North-American boreal forests, most notably because contemporary disturbance rates, including both clearcutting and fire, have gradually become higher than the fire rates observed during the preindustrial period.
Research highlights▶ The amount of mature and old forest declined progressively during the 20th century. ▶ This was partly due to the gradual expansion of clearcut harvesting. ▶ Large and severe fires also continued to occur during the same period. ▶ Clearcut-origin stands had a different composition than natural-origin stands.
Journal: Forest Ecology and Management - Volume 261, Issue 4, 15 February 2011, Pages 811–820