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• Education is supposedly free, but additional spending is often required to succeed.
• Children from poorer families receive less tutoring and family help.
• Disadvantaged children are less likely to complete basic education.
• The need for additional spending exacerbates socio-economic inequality in education.
Egypt has made enormous progress in increasing access to education. While school is theoretically free, families must often spend substantial sums in order for their children to succeed in school. The question that this paper investigates is whether students can succeed in Egypt's basic education system, regardless of their family circumstances, and without additional spending. The paper begins by examining inequality in completing basic education and then investigates the use of supplements, such as private tutoring. Outcomes are examined by socio-economic status, to illustrate how the need to supplement publicly provided basic education contributes to unequal opportunities for young Egyptians.
Journal: International Journal of Educational Development - Volume 45, November 2015, Pages 16–30