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• Four types of long-term teacher expectancy effects are introduced and explored.
• Evidence was found for within-year effects of single teachers.
• Evidence was found for compounded expectancy effects across years.
• The paper presents a contextual framework for long-term expectancy effects.
The capacity for teacher expectation effects to interact and compound across a child's schooling offers a largely untested mechanism for magnifying or minimizing effects. This study examined four types of long-term teacher expectation effects: within-year effects of single teachers, cross-year effects of single teachers, mediated effects of single and multiple teachers, and compounded effects of multiple teachers. Participants were 110 students tracked from preschool through Grade 4 on measures of achievement and teacher expectations. Evidence was found for within-year but not direct cross-year effects. However, path models demonstrated enduring indirect effects of teacher expectations on cross-year achievement. Multiple years of teacher expectation effects were additive in predicting student achievement at fourth grade, with similar effects for teachers' over- and underestimates of student ability. The study extends understanding of longer-term teacher expectation effects.
Journal: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology - Volume 35, Issue 3, May–June 2014, Pages 181–191