|کد مقاله||کد نشریه||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||نسخه تمام متن|
|4423252||1308817||2011||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||دانلود کنید|
The impact of cigarette smoking on volatile organic compound (VOC) blood levels is studied using 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Cigarette smoke exposure is shown to be a predominant source of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene (BTEXS) measured in blood as determined by (1) differences in central tendency and interquartile VOC blood levels between daily smokers [≥ 1 cigarette per day (CPD)] and less-than-daily smokers, (2) correlation among BTEXS and the 2,5-dimethylfuran (2,5-DMF) smoking biomarker in the blood of daily smokers, and (3) regression modeling of BTEXS blood levels versus categorized CPD. Smoking status was determined by 2,5-DMF blood level using a cutpoint of 0.014 ng/ml estimated by regression modeling of the weighted data and confirmed with receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis. The BTEXS blood levels among daily smokers were moderately-to-strongly correlated with 2,5-DMF blood levels (correlation coefficient, r, ranging from 0.46 to 0.92). Linear regression of the geometric mean BTEXS blood levels versus categorized CPD showed clear dose–response relationship (correlation of determination, R2, ranging from 0.81 to 0.98). Furthermore, the pattern of VOCs in blood of smokers is similar to that reported in mainstream cigarette smoke. These results show that cigarette smoking is a primary source of benzene, toluene and styrene and an important source of ethylbenzene and xylene exposure for the U.S. population, as well as the necessity of determining smoking status and factors affecting dose (e.g., CPD, time since last cigarette) in assessments involving BTEXS exposure.
► BTEXS blood levels are reported for smokers and less-than-daily smokers in the U.S.
► Cigarette smoke is a principle source of benzene and styrene blood levels.
► BTEXS blood levels among daily smokers are linearly dose dependent with cigarettes per day.
► Population weighted data for BTEXS blood levels is better adjusted using 2,5-DMF than cotinine.
► It is necessary to categorize smoking status and factors affecting dose when assessing BTEXS exposure.
Journal: Environment International - Volume 37, Issue 8, November 2011, Pages 1321–1328