|کد مقاله||کد نشریه||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||نسخه تمام متن|
|4695978||1351648||2012||22 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||دانلود رایگان|
Structured organic matters of the Palynomorphs of mainly dinoflagellate cysts are used in this study for dating the limestone, black shale, and marl of the Middle Jurassic (Bajocian–Bathonian) Sargelu Formation, Upper Jurassic (Upper Callovian – Lower Oxfordian) Naokelekan Formation, Upper Jurassic (Kimeridgian and Oxfordian) Gotnia and Barsarine Formations, and Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous (Tithonian-Beriassian) Chia Gara source rock Formations while spore species of Cyathidites australis and Glechenidites senonicus are used for maturation assessments of this succession. Materials' used for this palynological study are 320 core and cutting samples of twelve oil wells and three outcrops in North Iraq.Terpane and sterane biomarker distributions, as well as stable isotope values, were determined for oils potential source rock extracts of Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous strata to determine valid oil-to-source rock correlations in North Iraq. Two subfamily carbonate oil types-one of Middle Jurassic age (Sargelu) carbonate rock and the other of mixed Upper Jurassic/Cretaceous age (Chia Gara) with Sargelu sources as well as a different oil family related to Triassic marls, were identified based on multivariate statistical analysis (HCA & PCA). Middle Jurassic subfamily A oils from Demir Dagh oil field correlate well with rich, marginally mature, Sargelu source rocks in well Mk-2 near the city of Baiji. In contrast, subfamily B oils have a greater proportion of C28/C29 steranes, indicating they were generated from Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous carbonates such as those at Gillabat oil field north of Mansuriyah Lake. Oils from Gillabat field thus indicate a lower degree of correlation with the Sargelu source rocks than do oils from Demir Dagh field.Palynofacies assessments are performed for this studied succession by ternary kerogen plots of the phytoclast, amorphous organic matters, and palynomorphs. From the diagram of these plots and maturation analysis, it could be assessed that the formations of Chia Gara and Sargelu are both deposited in distal suboxic to anoxic basin and can be correlated with kerogens classified microscopically as Type A and Type B and chemically as Type II. The organic matter, comprised principally of brazinophyte algae, dinoflagellate cysts, spores, pollen, foraminifera test linings, and phytoclasts in all these formations and hence affected with upwelling current. These deposit contain up to 18 wt% total organic matters that are capable to generate hydrocarbons within mature stage of thermal alteration index (TAI) range in Stalplin's scale (Staplin, 1969) of 2.7–3.0 for the Chia Gara Formation and 2.9–3.1 for the Sargelu Formation. Case study examples of these oil prone strata are; one 7-m (23-ft) thick section of the Sargelu Formation averages 44.2 mg HC/g S2 and 439 °C Tmax (Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses) and 16 wt% TOC especially in well Mk-2 whereas, one 8-m (26-ft) thick section of the Chia Gara and 1-m (3-ft) section of Naokelekan Formations average 44.5 mg HC/g S2 and 440 °C Tmax and 14 wt% TOC especially in well Aj-8. One-dimension, petroleum system models of key wells using IES PetroMod Software can confirm their oil generation capability.These hydrocarbon type accumulation sites are illustrated in structural cross sections and maps in North Iraq.
► Chia Gara, and Sargelu Formation are capable to generate hydrocarbons within mature stage.
► Terpane and sterane biomarker as well as stable isotope values, were used for oil source affinity.
► Modeling petroleum system have increased the exploration efficiency for hydrocarbon traps.
Journal: Marine and Petroleum Geology - Volume 36, Issue 1, September 2012, Pages 13–34