کد مقاله کد نشریه سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی نسخه تمام متن
4759318 1421357 2017 13 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید دانلود رایگان
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله ISI
Elk nutritional resources: Herbicides, herbivory and forest succession at Mount St. Helens
ترجمه فارسی عنوان
منابع تغذیه ای شیر: علف کش ها، گیاهان و جانوران جنگلی در کوه سنت هلن
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کلمات کلیدی
سرووس ایلافوس، ملکه، علف کش ها، گیاهخواری، تغذیه، جانشینی جنگل،
موضوعات مرتبط
علوم زیستی و بیوفناوری علوم کشاورزی و بیولوژیک بوم شناسی، تکامل، رفتار و سامانه شناسی
چکیده انگلیسی
Concern exists about the effects that silvicultural herbicides, past herbivory, and forest succession may have on the carrying capacity for ungulates in the vicinity of Mount St. Helens in southwest Washington. We independently evaluated the effects of both operational herbicides and ungulate herbivory on biomass and available digestible energy of forages in a chronosequence of early-succession (ES) forest stands using a retrospective, paired-site design. We distinguished between trends in biomass by classifying species as avoided (used less than available) or accepted (used equal or more than available) forages for elk based on recent research involving foraging trials of hand-raised, tractable elk in western Oregon and Washington. Herbicide application reduced biomass of accepted forages (kg/ha) for only two years, whereas the initial reduction in avoided biomass persisted throughout the 13-year ES period that we evaluated. The reduction in avoided species was not associated with an increase in accepted species, which may be related to herbivory. We observed that forest canopy closure even at 10-13 years was similar in stands treated and untreated with herbicides, suggesting herbicides did not shorten the seral window when palatable forages were abundant. Because dry matter digestibility of accepted species was generally higher than avoided species, digestible energy (DE, kcal/ha) available to elk was similar to trends in accepted and avoided biomass. An initial 2-year increase in modelled estimates of dietary DE in herbicide-treated stands in years 1-2 resulted from a rapid recovery of plants with high digestibility. In contrast to herbicide treatments, effects of ungulate herbivory on ES communities increased with stand age with a reduction of deciduous shrub height but not densities, reduced biomass of accepted but not avoided species, and reduced standing DE of accepted species outside exclosures. Despite the influence of herbicide applications, herbivory, or their interactions, nutritional resources for elk were equal or more available in ES stands than in mid- and late-succession stands, highlighting the importance of maintaining ES stands for elk in this region.
ناشر
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect (ساینس دایرکت)
Journal: Forest Ecology and Management - Volume 401, 1 October 2017, Pages 242-254
نویسندگان
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