کد مقاله کد نشریه سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی نسخه تمام متن
6412782 1629935 2014 15 صفحه PDF دانلود رایگان
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله ISI
Long term (1960-2010) trends in groundwater contamination and salinization in the Ogallala aquifer in Texas
موضوعات مرتبط
مهندسی و علوم پایه علوم زمین و سیارات فرآیندهای سطح زمین
پیش نمایش صفحه اول مقاله
Long term (1960-2010) trends in groundwater contamination and salinization in the Ogallala aquifer in Texas
چکیده انگلیسی


- Salinization increased over time due to both natural and anthropogenic processes.
- Mixing between Ogallala and underlying formations aggravated salinization process.
- A distinct spatial pattern in salinization and NO3-contamination was apparent.
- Water quality degraded from north (HCO3 water) to south (SO4-Cl water) of Ogallala.
- Shallow wells were more saline and NO3-contaminated, indicating surficial inputs.

SummaryAlthough numerous studies have expounded on depletion of the Ogallala aquifer, very few researchers have studied groundwater quality therein which relates to the 'usability' of available groundwater resources. The objective of this study was to elucidate regional trends in groundwater quality and salinization in the Ogallala aquifer, underlying 49 counties and two Groundwater Management Areas (GMA 1 and 2) in Texas, on a decadal scale between 1960 and 2010. Contrasting groundwater quality distinguished GMA 1 (northern Ogallala) from GMA 2 (southern Ogallala), and shallow wells (depth <50 m) from deep (>50 m) wells. The GMA 2 was characterized by pronounced groundwater nitrate (NO3−) contamination accompanied by elevated levels of sulfate (SO42−), chloride (Cl−) and salinity (TDS), marked by an abundance of mixed cation SO4-Cl and Na-Cl facies. In contrast, Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-HCO3 facies prevailed in GMA 1 with substantially lower salinization, SO42−, Cl− and NO3 contamination. In shallow wells, more abundant in GMA 2, about 80% and 32% of observations exceeded the United State Environmental Protection Agency's Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL, 500 mg L−1) for total dissolved solids (TDS) and MCL (44 mg L−1) for NO3, respectively in the 2000s (2000-2010), with progressive increases in both parameters since the 1960s (1960-1969). Majority (>60%) of the shallow observations since the 1980s (1980-1989) have exceeded the natural background of 11 mg L−1 of NO3− indicating anthropogenic sources, The NO3− contamination was more apparent in domestic wells indicating substantial human health risk. Groundwater salinization in this aquifer resulted from a combination of natural (e.g. upwelling of highly mineralized groundwater from the underlying formations, seepage from playas and saline plumes, and evaporative enrichment) and anthropogenic processes (irrigated agriculture and hydrocarbon exploration activities). Natural processes were largely aggravated by anthropogenic practices such as lowering of hydraulic heads in the Ogallala aquifer due to prolonged irrigational pumping, inducing cross-formational flow from underlying highly mineralized older formations (Edwards Trinity (High Plains)) which led to groundwater mixing between the formations and rise in salinity levels in the Ogallala aquifer over time.

ناشر
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect (ساینس دایرکت)
Journal: Journal of Hydrology - Volume 513, 26 May 2014, Pages 376-390
نویسندگان
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