کد مقاله کد نشریه سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی نسخه تمام متن
90434 159381 2006 11 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید دانلود رایگان
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله ISI
Linking wolves to willows via risk-sensitive foraging by ungulates in the northern Yellowstone ecosystem
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موضوعات مرتبط
علوم زیستی و بیوفناوری علوم کشاورزی و بیولوژیک بوم شناسی، تکامل، رفتار و سامانه شناسی
پیش نمایش صفحه اول مقاله
Linking wolves to willows via risk-sensitive foraging by ungulates in the northern Yellowstone ecosystem
چکیده انگلیسی

After an absence of approximately 70 years, gray wolves (Canis lupus) were re-introduced into Yellowstone National Park in the mid-1990s. We studied the potential influence of wolf/ungulate interactions upon willow (Salix spp.) growth in the valleys of the Gallatin and Lamar Rivers, as well as Slough and Soda Butte Creeks, in the northern Yellowstone ecosystem. When we compared willow heights from photographs taken prior to 1998 (willows <2 m tall) with those taken in 2004, we found an increase in willow height for 22 of 42 sites within the study area. Based on comparisons of the chronosequence photos, since wolf introduction none of the 16 upland riparian sites showed an increase in willow height, while 22 of 26 of the valley-bottom riparian sites had willow height increases. In 2004, willow height exhibited a strong inverse relationship with the percentage of browsed stems (r = −0.81, p < 0.01, n = 42). Results of regressions for valley-bottom sites indicated that view distance, impediment distance, and the number of bison (Bison bison) flops were inversely related to willow height (p ≤ 0.02). Increased willow heights were not significantly (p = 0.18) related to patterns of moisture availability. Willow height increases documented in this study appear to have been at least partially due to behaviorally mediated trophic cascades involving wolves and ungulates, via a mechanism of predation risk. While willow release (i.e., increased height growth) within the study area is in a very early stage, results suggest potentially important indirect effects of a top carnivore in a terrestrial food chain that may aid in the restoration of riparian species and the preservation of biodiversity.

ناشر
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect (ساینس دایرکت)
Journal: Forest Ecology and Management - Volume 230, Issues 1–3, 15 July 2006, Pages 96–106
نویسندگان
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