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- MB treatment could effectively preserve the memory deficit following STZ insult.
- The significant neuroprotection of MB on rat hippocampal CA1 neurons.
- MB was shown to attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction-derived oxidative stress and energy metabolic decline after STZ administration.
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is well documented to involve mitochondrial dysfunction which causes subsequent oxidative stress and energy metabolic failure in hippocampus. Methylene blue (MB) has been implicated to be neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases by restoring mitochondrial function. The present work was to examine if MB was able to improve streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Alzheimer's type dementia in a rat model by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction-derived oxidative stress and ATP synthesis decline. MB was administrated at a dose of 0.5Â mg/kg/day for consecutive 7Â days after bilateral STZ intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection (2.5Â mg/kg). We first demonstrated that MB treatment significantly ameliorated STZ-induced hippocampus-dependent memory loss in passive avoidance test. We also found that MB has the properties to preserve neuron survival and attenuate neuronal degeneration in hippocampus CA1 region after STZ injection. In addition, oxidative stress was subsequently evaluated by measuring the content of lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Importantly, results from our study showed a remarkable suppression of MB treatment on both MDA production and 4-HNE immunoactivity. Finally, energy metabolism in CA1 region was examined by detecting mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activity and the resultant ATP production. Of significant interest, our result displayed a robust facilitation of MB on CCO activity and the consequent ATP synthesis. The current study indicates that MB may be a promising therapeutic agent targeting oxidative damage and ATP synthesis failure during AD progression.
Journal: Brain Research - Volume 1657, 15 February 2017, Pages 208-214