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• Support for the construct validity of a 3 × 2 achievement goal model.
• Advantages of task- and other-based standards of achievement goals.
• Disadvantages of self-based standards of achievement goals.
This study investigated aspects of validity in a Norwegian version of the 3 × 2 achievement goal framework, which is a recent development of the achievement goal construct based on task- self- and other-based standards of competence. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the expected 3 × 2 factor structure of this model. Correlational and multivariate analyses showed that these factors were differentially related to aspects of motivation and learning strategies in terms of achievement motives (motive for success and motive to avoid failure), self-efficacy, value, learning strategies (deep, surface and strategic), and academic achievement. In general, task-based and other-based approach goals were related to more functional aspects of the abovementioned motivational variables. Conversely, self-based goals (both approach and avoidance) showed an opposite pattern of relations to these variables. In conclusion, contrasting a current state with a possible outcome is effective when using task- and other-based standards of evaluation, but not when using self-based standards.
Journal: International Journal of Educational Research - Volume 72, 2015, Pages 59–69