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Phase relations of two samples of the Breccia Museo Eruption (BME), BME is an explosive event that took place (about 20 ky ago) during the caldera-forming phase of the Ignimbrite Campana eruption, have been determined experimentally as a function of temperature (700 to 885 °C), pressure (50 to 200 MPa) and water content of the melt. The crystallization experiments were carried out at fO2 = NNO + 1 log unit. Melt water content ranged from 3.4 to 8 wt.% (H2O saturation). The synthetic products are compared to the natural phases to constrain the pre-eruptive conditions of trachytic magma in the presence of an H2O-rich fluid. The major phases occurring in the BME have been reproduced. The stability of biotite is favoured at pressures higher than 135 MPa. Phase equilibria at 200 MPa reproduce the phase assemblage of the magma only at temperatures below 775 °C. Phase abundances and melt fractions indicate that the eruption tapped a magma body that was at a temperature of 780 °C and a pressure in the range 200–140 MPa. The observed major element variations are fully consistent with a fractional crystallization of a sanidine-dominated assemblage starting from the least differentiated trachytes. The compositions of the experimental products are compatible with the progressive tapping of a shallow magma chamber that was chemically zoned. These results suggest that after an early eruptive phase during which the upper, most differentiated level of the magma chamber was tapped, the sudden collapse of the roof of the reservoir triggered drainage of the less evolved remaining magma.
Journal: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research - Volume 171, Issues 1–2, 30 March 2008, Pages 88–102